Welcome to the May 2020 Dairy Research Bulletin. The Dairy Research Bulletin delivers a brief synopsis of the most current Human, Animal, and Environmental dairy research that is going on in the World, and also that which is of special interest to California dairy producers and consumers alike.
If you would like to peruse the most pertinent dairy research from months past, then visit the Dairy Research Bulletin Archive.
Selected Articles on Social Responsibility, Environmental Management, and Sustainability
Development of an on-farm model to predict flow of fecal volatile solids to the liquid and solid handling systems of commercial California dairy farms. Cohen-Davidyan T, Meyer D, Robinson PH. Waste Manag. 2020 May 15;109:127-135.
- A source of methane (CH4) emissions from dairy farms are fecal volatile solids (VS) produced by cattle, which is impacted by herd size, cattle type, feed intake/composition and farm management practices. Where cattle deposit fecal VS in their pen is important in this regard since that deposited on concrete, which will be handled and stored in a liquid form, is a likely source of CH4emissions, whereas fecal VS deposited on drylot surfaces will be handled and stored in a dry form and is a minor source of CH4
- The objective of this study was to create a model to assist dairy farmers and regulators make informed evaluations of impacts of dairy farm management practices on potential CH4emissions from fecal VS.
- Evaluation of initial model outputs led to on-farm data collection of the model inputs which influenced predicted fecal VS entering the liquid and solid manure handling systems. A key input limitation was lack of information on cattle fecal deposition locations within pens. Data collection used four dairy farms to measure time that cattle spent on concrete surfaces within day among season, as well as other model inputs.
- The final model, populated with collected data, showed that lactating cattle contribute the overwhelming proportion of fecal VS, 77% in the composite dairy farms, and that a composite freestall dairy farm had 65% of total fecal VS deposited on concrete annually with the remainder on drylot surfaces. In contrast, a composite drylot dairy farm had 37% of fecal VS deposited on concrete annually.
Effects of Two Manure Additives on Methane Emissions from Dairy Manure. Cluett J, VanderZaag AC, Baldé H, McGinn S, Jenson E, Hayes AC, Ekwe S.Animals (Basel). 2020 May 7;10(5):E807.
- Liquid manure is a significant source of methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. Many livestock farms use manure additives for practical and agronomic purposes, but the effect on CH4emissions is unknown.
- To address this gap, two lab studies were conducted, evaluating the CH4produced from liquid dairy manure with Penergetic-g® (12 mg/L, 42 mg/L, and 420 mg/L) or AgrimestMix® (30.3 mL/L).
- In the first study, cellulose produced 378 mL CH4/g volatile solids (VS) at 38 °C and there was no significant difference with Penergetic-g®at 12 mg/L or 42 mg/L. At the same temperature, dairy manure produced 254 mL CH4/g VS and was not significantly different from 42 mg/L Penergetic-g®.
- In the second lab study, the dairy manure control produced 187 mL CH4/g VS at 37 °C and 164 mL CH4/g VS at 20 °C, and there was no significant difference with AgrimestMix (30.3 mL/L) or Penergetic-g®(420 mg/L) at either temperature.
- Comparisons of manure composition before and after incubation indicated that the additives had no effect on pH or VS, and small and inconsistent effects on other constituents.
- Overall, neither additive affected CH4production in the lab. The results suggest that farms using these additives are likely to have normal CH4 emissions from stored manure.
Artificial Intelligence Applied to a Robotic Dairy Farm to Model Milk Productivity and Quality based on Cow Data and Daily Environmental Parameters. Fuentes S, Gonzalez Viejo C, Cullen B, Tongson E, Chauhan SS, Dunshea FR.Sensors (Basel). 2020 May 24;20(10):E2975.
- Increased global temperatures and climatic anomalies, such as heatwaves, as a product of climate change, are impacting the heat stress levels of farm animals. These impacts could have detrimental effects on the milk quality and productivity of dairy cows.
- This research used four years of data from a robotic dairy farm from 36 cows with similar heat tolerance (Model 1), and all 312 cows from the farm (Model 2).
- These data consisted of programmed concentrate feed and weight combined with weather parameters to develop supervised machine learning fitting models to predict milk yield, fat and protein content, and actual cow concentrate feed intake.
- Results showed highly accurate models, which were developed for cows with a similar genetic heat tolerance (Model 1: n = 116, 456; R = 0.87; slope = 0.76) and for all cows (Model 2: n = 665, 836; R = 0.86; slope = 0.74).
- Furthermore, an artificial intelligence (AI) system was proposed to increase or maintain a targeted level of milk quality by reducing heat stress that could be applied to a conventional dairy farm with minimal technology addition.
The Influence of Different Types of Outdoor Access on Dairy Cattle Behavior. Smid AC, Weary DM, von Keyserlingk MAG.Front Vet Sci. 2020 May 13;7:257.
- Pasture access for dairy cows is highly valued both by cows and the public at large. When pasture access is not feasible, farmers can provide cows with alternative forms of outdoor access, such as an outdoor bedded pack, that may be easier to implement on some farms.
- Researchers reviewed the literature on how lying, standing, walking, feeding, social, and estrus behaviors are influenced by pasture and other types of outdoor areas.
- The review showed that pasture allows the expression of grazing and can facilitate the expression of lying, standing, walking, and estrus behaviors. In addition, pasture can decrease the number of negative social interactions between cows, likely because more space per cow is provided than what is normally available indoors.
- The provision of soft flooring and an open space in outdoor bedded packs appears to provide some benefits for lying, standing, and walking behavior and may also have positive effects on social behavior, especially with larger space allowances.
- The effects of an outdoor bedded pack on estrus behavior are less well-documented, but the provision of a standing surface that provides better footing than typically available indoors may promote estrus behavior.
- Alternative outdoor areas assessed to date appear to be less attractive for cows than pasture, perhaps because these areas do not provide the opportunity to graze.
- The motivation of dairy cows to access alternative outdoor areas should also be investigated. As cow preference for the outdoors depends on many factors, providing cows a choice may be of particular importance.
Effectiveness of tunnel ventilation as dairy cow housing in hot climates: rectal temperatures during heat stress and seasonal variation in milk yield. Dikmen S, Larson CC, De Vries A, Hansen PJ.Trop Anim Health Prod. 2020 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s11250-020-02309-3.
- Tunnel ventilation is an increasingly popular approach to mitigate the effects of heat stress on dairy cattle. Tunnel-ventilation barns use a bank of high-power fans to move air horizontally from one end of the barn to the other at cow level.
- The overall objective of the present experiments was to determine whether tunnel ventilation is superior to housing with fans and sprinklers with respect to rectal temperature during heat stress and seasonal variation in milk yield.
- In the first study, rectal temperatures were measured for 1,097 lactating Holstein cows in six freestall barns with fans and sprinklers and 575 lactating Holsteins in four tunnel-ventilated freestall barns at a time point between 2pm and 4pm during the months of June to August in Florida, USA.
- Rectal temperatures were lower for cows in tunnel-ventilation barns than sprinkler-and-fan barns when the tunnel-ventilation barns were built de novo but not when the tunnel-ventilation barns were produced by retrofitting a sprinkler-and-fan barn.
- In the second study, average daily milk yield in the first 90 days in milk was examined for 8,470 lactating Holsteins housed in three sprinkler-and-fan barns and two tunnel-ventilation barns. Milk production for cows calving in cool weather (October to March) was greater than for cows calving in hot weather (April to September). The seasonal reduction in milk yield was less for cows in tunnel-ventilation barns (3.5% decrease) than for cows in sprinkler-and-fan barns (5.8% decrease).
- With this difference in impact of heat stress, it was estimated at a dairy farm could invest up to a $332 more per cow space in a tunnel-ventilated barn than in a sprinkler-and-fan barn. It was concluded that housing cows in tunnel-ventilation barns can reduce the impact of heat stress on body temperature regulation and milk yield.
Carry over effects of late-gestational heat stress on dairy cattle progeny. Dado-Senn B, Laporta J, Dahl GE.Theriogenology. 2020 May 12;154:17-23.
- The impacts of late gestation heat stress on the dam and her subsequent lactation are well-recognized. However, more recent research has demonstrated the long-lasting and severe negative consequences on the in-utero heat-stressed progeny.
- Dairy calves born to late gestation heat-stressed dams weigh less at birth and up to one year of age and have compromised metabolism and immune function.
- In-utero programming of these offspring may coordinate alterations in thermoregulation, mammary development, and milk synthetic capacity at different developmental windows.
- Thus, prenatally heat-stressed dairy heifers will produce less milk across multiple lactations and have a lower herd survival rate, potentially negatively impacting the U.S. dairy economy.
- Dry period heat stress abatement strategies should be considered not only for the productivity and welfare of the pregnant dam but also for the developing calf.
Antimicrobial susceptibility of nine udder pathogens recovered from bovine clinical mastitis milk in Europe 2015-2016: VetPath results. El Garch F, Youala M, Simjee S, Moyaert H, Klee R, Truszkowska B, Rose M, Hocquet D, Valot B, Morrissey I, de Jong A; VetPath Study Group.Vet Microbiol. 2020 Jun;245:108644.
- VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics.
- Non-duplicate isolates (n = 1244) were obtained from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries during 2015-2016 for centrally antimicrobial susceptibility testing according CLSI standards.
- Among Escherichia coli (n = 225), resistance was high to ampicillin and tetracycline, moderate to kanamycin and low to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefazolin. The MIC50/90of danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin were 0.03 and 0.06 μg/mL.
- For Klebsiella spp. (n = 70), similar results were noted, except for ampicillin and kanamycin.
- The researchers detected 3.7 % (11/295) Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying an ESBL/AmpC gene.
- Staphylococcus aureus (n = 247) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; n = 189) isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested except to penicillin (25.1 and 29.1 % resistance). Two S. aureus and thirteen CoNS isolates harboured mecA gene.
- Streptococcus uberis isolates (n = 208) were susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics (87.1-94.7 % susceptibility), 23.9 % were resistant to erythromycin and 37.5 % to tetracycline. Resistance to pirlimycin was moderate.
- For Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 132) the latter figures were 10.6 and 43.2 %; pirlimycin resistance was low. MIC values for Streptococcus agalactiae, Trueperella pyogenes and Corynebacterium spp. were generally low.
- This current VetPath study shows that mastitis pathogens were susceptible to most antimicrobials with exceptions of staphylococci against penicillin and streptococci against erythromycin or tetracycline. For most antimicrobials, the percentage resistance and MIC50/90values among the major pathogens were comparable to that of the preceeding VetPath surveys. This work highlights the high need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antimicrobials frequently used to treat mastitis.
Bulk tank milk quality data is unlikely to give useful information about dairy cow welfare at herd level. Ginestreti J, Strano RM, Lorenzi V, Fusi F, Angelucci A, Ferrara G, Galletti G, Bergagna S, Bolzoni G, Zanardi G, Buffoli E, Marcolini A, Bertocchi L.J Dairy Res. 2020 May;87(2):208-211.
- This research communication explores the value of routinely collected bulk tank milk quality data for estimating dairy cattle welfare at herd level.
- Selected bulk tank milk quality parameters (somatic cell count, total bacterial count, urea, protein and fat contents) recorded during the years 2014-2016 in 287 Italian dairy farms were compared with the animal welfare data of each farm.
- Somatic cell count, total bacterial count, urea and proteins demonstrated only a few statistically significant and very weak correlations with farm animal welfare data, while no significant correlations were obtained for milk fat content.
- Given the weak correlations found, the selected bulk tank milk parameters seems to be able to provide only limited information about the welfare level of the herd, thus it could be difficult to use them for drawing up a pre-screening model for identifying herds at risk of poor welfare.
Selected Articles on Dairy Intake and Human Health
NASPGHAN Position Paper: Plant-Based Milks. Merritt RJ, Fleet SE, Fifi A, Jump C, Schwartz S, Sentongo T, Duro D, Rudolph J, Turner J.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 May 26.
- Parents and caretakers are increasingly feeding infants and young children plant-based “milk” alternatives to cow milk. The US Food and Drug Administration currently defines “milk” and related milk products by the product source and the inherent nutrients provided by bovine milk.
- Substitution of a milk that does not provide a similar nutritional profile to cow milk can be deleterious to a child’s nutritional status, growth and development. Milk’s contribution to the protein intake of young children is especially important. For almond or rice milk, an 8 oz serving provides only about 2% or 8%, respectively, of the protein equivalent found in a serving of cow milk.
- Adverse effects from the misuse of certain plant-based beverages have been well-documented and include failure to gain weight, decreased stature, kwashiorkor, electrolyte disorders, kidney stones and severe nutrient deficiencies including iron deficiency anemia, rickets and scurvy.
- Such adverse nutritional outcomes are largely preventable. It is the position of the NASPGHAN Nutrition Committee, on behalf of the society, that only appropriate commercial infant formulas be used as alternatives to human milk in the first year of life.
- In young children beyond the first year of life requiring a dairy-free diet, commercial formula may be a preferable alternative to cow’s milk, when such formula constitutes a substantial source of otherwise absent or reduced nutrients (e.g., protein, calcium, vitamin D) in the child’s restricted diet.
- Consumer education is required to clarify that plant-based milks do not represent an equivalent source of such nutrients. In this position paper we provide specific recommendations for clinical care, labeling and needed research relative to plant-based milks.
Yogurt, cultured fermented milk, and health: a systematic review. Savaiano DA, Hutkins RW.Nutr Rev. 2020 May 23:nuaa013.
- Consumption of yogurt and other fermented products is associated with improved health outcomes. Although dairy consumption is included in most dietary guidelines, there have been few specific recommendations for yogurt and cultured dairy products.
- A qualitative systematic review was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of fermented milk products on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular health, cancer risk, weight management, diabetes and metabolic health, and bone density using PRISMA guidelines.
- 108 studies were included in the final review. The included studies were published between 1979 and 2017. From the 76 studies reported a favorable outcome of fermented milks on health and 67 of these were considered to be positive or neutral quality according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Quality Criteria Checklist.
- Of the 32 remaining studies, the study outcomes were either not significant (28) or unfavorable (4), and most studies (18) were of neutral quality. A causal relationship exists between lactose digestion and tolerance and yogurt consumption, and consistent associations exist between fermented milk consumption and reduced risk of breast and colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, improved weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular, bone, and gastrointestinal health.
- Further, an association exists between prostate cancer occurrence and dairy product consumption in general, with no difference between fermented and unfermented products.
- This article argues that yogurt and other fermented milk products provide favorable health outcomes beyond the milk from which these products are made and that consumption of these products should be encouraged as part of national dietary guidelines.
Substitution among milk and yogurt products and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-NL cohort. Stuber JM, Vissers LET, Verschuren MWM, Boer JMA, van der Schouw YT, Sluijs I.J Hum Nutr Diet. 2020 May 21.
- Higher dairy consumption has been associated with lower type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, whereas dairy product subtypes appear to differ in their T2D risk association.
- The researchers investigated whether replacing one type of milk or yogurt product with another is associated with T2D incidence.
- Participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort (n = 35 982) were included in the present study. Information on milk and yogurt consumption at baseline was obtained by a validated food frequency questionnaire.
- During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 1467 indecent T2D cases were validated. Median total milk and yogurt intake was 1.5 servings. After adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, replacement of one serving (200 g) of whole-fat milk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93], buttermilk (HR = 0.88), skimmed milk (HR = 0.87) or skimmed fermented milk (HR = 0.99) with whole-fat yogurt was not associated with T2D risk.
- Substitutions among other milk and yogurt products were also not associated with T2D risk. Sensitivity analysis investigating T2D risk halfway follow-up suggested a lower risk for substitutions with whole-fat yogurt.
- No evidence was found for the association between substitutions among milk and yogurt products and the risk of incident T2D, although we cannot exclude possible attenuation of results as a result of dietary changes over time. This analysis should be repeated in a population with a wider consumption range of whole-fat yogurt.
Substitution of Milk with Whole-Fat Yogurt Products or Cheese Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Myocardial Infarction: The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Kvist K, Laursen ASD, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU.J Nutr. 2020 May 1;150(5):1252-1258.
- Food-based dietary guidelines recommend replacement of whole-fat dairy products with low-fat variants based on data suggesting that diets high in saturated fat are associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease. However, the health effects of saturated fat may depend on the source.
- The aim was to investigate substitutions between different subgroups of dairy products and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).
- Data were from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and included 54,903 men and women aged 50-64 y at enrollment and without an MI diagnosis. Information about intake of dairy products was obtained by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire.
- During a median follow-up of 15.9 years, 3033 cases were identified. Whole-fat yogurt products in place of low-fat or whole-fat milk were associated with a lower risk of MI (HR: 0.89; per 200 g/d replaced; and HR: 0.87; per 200 g/d replaced, respectively).
- Substitution of 20 g/d of cheese for 200 g/d of low-fat or whole-fat milk was also associated with a lower risk of MI (HR: 0.96; and HR: 0.95, respectively).
- Among middle-aged Danish men and women, intake of whole-fat yogurt products or cheese in place of milk, regardless of fat content, was associated with a lower risk of development of MI.
Fermented dairy foods rich in probiotics and cardiometabolic risk factors: a narrative review from prospective cohort studies. Companys J, Pedret A, Valls RM, Solà R, Pascual V.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020 May 21:1-10.
- Probiotic foods, including fermented dairy (FD) products such as yogurt and cheese, naturally contain live microorganisms, but the relationship between the consumption of probiotic foods and health is unclear.
- The aim of the present narrative review is to integrate the available information on the relationship between the most studied FD products, which are yogurt and cheese, and cardiometabolic risk factors obtained from meta-analysis, systematic reviews of prospective cohort studies (PCSs) and PCSs published up to 2 November 2019.
- Additionally, the effects identified by randomized controlled trials of less-studied FD products, such as kefir and kimchi, on cardiometabolic risk factors are provided.
- PCSs have shown that the consumption of cheese, despite its high saturated fat content, is not associated with expected hypercholesterolemia and an increased cardiovascular risk.
- PCSs have revealed that the total consumption of FD appears to be associated with a lower risk of developing stroke and cardiovascular disease.
- The consumption of yogurt seems to be associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- There is a lack of sufficient evidence of a protective relationship between FD or cheese consumption and metabolic syndrome.
- Moreover, the association of FD, cheese and yogurt with hypertension needs further evidence.
- In conclusion, the intake of fermented foods containing probiotics, particularly yogurt and cheese (of an undetermined type), opens up new opportunities for the management of cardiometabolic risk factors.
Associations of different types of dairy intakes with depressive symptoms in adults. Sun J, Wang W, Zhang D. J Affect Disord. 2020 May 22;274:326-333.
- Current evidence on the associations between different types of milk products and depressive symptoms is few and controversial, and there has been no study focusing on different types of milk (whole-fat, low-fat, and skim). This study aimed to appraise their associations.
- This cross-sectional study included adults (N=21,924) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2016. Patient Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Logistic regression model was implemented to assess the association of dairy consumption with depressive symptoms.
- After multivariate adjustment, compared to non-consumers, the odds ratios of depressive symptoms for intake < 175.38 g/d and 175.38 to < 321.56 g/d of skim milk were 0.48 and 0.46, and 0.70 for intake < 81.00 g/d of milk desserts, while 1.61, 1.70 and 1.55 for intake < 129.63 g/d, 129.63 to < 289.75 g/d and ≥ 289.75 g/d of whole milk, respectively.
- These associations remained significant in stratified analyses by gender and age. Additionally, yogurt was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in both females and the age group (≥ 60 years). Low-fat milk was inversely associated with depressive symptoms for both males and the age group (≥ 60 years).
- Moderate creams intake was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in males. Intakes of skim milk and moderate milk desserts were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, while whole milk was positively associated with depressive symptoms among adults.
Chronic Consumption of Bovine Dairy Milk Attenuates Dietary Saturated Fatty Acid-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction. D’Alonzo Z, Lam V, Nesbit M, Graneri L, Takechi R, Mamo JCL.Front Nutr. 2020 May 6;7:58.
- Ingestion of Western-diets enriched in long chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA) are associated with increased risk of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and neurovascular inflammation. Potential mechanisms include vascular insult as a consequence of metabolic aberrations, or changes in capillary permeability resulting in brain parenchymal extravasation of pro-inflammatory molecules.
- Bovine dairy milk (BDM) is potentially a significant source of dietary LCSFA, however, BDM contains an array of bioactive molecules purported to have vascular anti-inflammatory properties.
- This study investigated the effects of full cream (4% total fat) and delipidated (skim) BDM on BBB integrity and neuroinflammation in wild-type mice.
- Mice consuming substantial amounts of full cream or skim BDM with LCSFA-enriched chow were dyslipidemic compared to control mice provided with standard chow and water. However, there was no evidence of BBB dysfunction or neuroinflammation indicated by parenchymal abundance of immunoglobulin G and microglial recruitment, respectively.
- Positive control mice maintained on an LCSFA-enriched diet derived from cocoa-butter and water, had marked BBB dysfunction, however, co-provision of both full cream and skim milk solutions effectively attenuated LCSFA-induced BBB dysfunction. In mice provided with low-fat chow and full cream BDM drinking solutions, there were substantial favorable changes in the concentration of plasma anti-inflammatory cytokines.
- This study suggests that consumption of BDM may confer potent vascular benefits through the neuroprotective properties exuded by the milk-fat globule membrane moiety of BDM.
The association between breast cancer and consumption of dairy products: a systematic review. García EV, Sala-Serra M, Continente-Garcia X, Serral Cano G, Puigpinós-Riera R.Nutr Hosp. 2020 May 7.
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and its relationship with dietary factors particularly dairy products, has been investigated trough several studies but up to now there are still not enough results to confirm the association between breast cancer and dairy products.
- The purpose of this systematic review was to expand the number of systematic reviews that to date exist on the relationship between dairy products consumption and risk of breast cancer. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Scopus and Embase was performed from September 2005 to September 2018 in which one case control and cohorts’ studies were included.
- Eighteen studies were finally selected for the review (10 case-control and 8 cohorts’ studies). These studies reported several statistically significant associations (OR, HR, RR) between dairy product consumption and the risk of breast cancer. Seven case-control and four cohorts’ studies showed that dairy product consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, on the other hand, a positive association was found in two case-control and non- significant association was found between dairy product consumption and the risk of breast cancer in the remaining studies (one case-control and four cohorts’ studies)
- Although an inverse association was observed in most studies, it’s difficult to draw conclusions when the methodology methods to collect the dairy product intake and the servings or portions measurements were different in each study. On the other hand, not all studies used the same confounding variable to estimate risk.
The associations of longitudinal changes in consumption of total and types of dairy products and markers of metabolic risk and adiposity: findings from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study, United Kingdom. Trichia E, Luben R, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Imamura F, Forouhi NG.Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 1;111(5):1018-1026.
- The consumption of some types of dairy products has been associated with lower cardiometabolic disease incidence. Knowledge remains limited about habitual dairy consumption and the pathways to cardiometabolic risk.
- Researchers aimed to investigate associations of habitual consumption of total and types of dairy products with markers of metabolic risk and adiposity among adults in the United Kingdom.
- Researchers examined associations of changes in dairy consumption (assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire) with parallel changes in cardiometabolic markers using multiple linear regression among 15,612 adults aged 40-78 y at baseline (1993-1997) and followed up over 1998-2000 (mean ± SD: 3.7±0.7 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study.
- For adiposity, an increase in fermented dairy products [yogurt (total or low-fat) or low-fat cheese] consumption was associated with a lower increase in body weight and body mass index (BMI). For example, over 3.7 years, increasing yogurt consumption by 1 serving/day was associated with a smaller increase in body weight by 0.23 kg.
- An increase in full-fat milk, high-fat cheese, and total high-fat dairy was associated with greater increases in body weight and BMI.
- For lipids, an increase in milk (total and low-fat) or yogurt consumption was positively associated with HDL cholesterol. An increase in total low-fat dairy was negatively associated with LDL cholesterol, whereas high-fat dairy (total, butter, and high-fat cheese) consumption was positively associated.
- For glycemia, increasing full-fat milk consumption was associated with a higher increase in glycated hemoglobin.
- In conclusion,the habitual consumption of different dairy subtypes may differently influence cardiometabolic risk through adiposity and lipid pathways.