Dairy Research Bulletin Selected Articles from May 2024

 Environmental Management and Sustainability

Air Quality and Public Health Effects of Dairy Digesters in California. Jiang J, Li Y, Kleeman M. Atmospheric Environment. 2024;331:120588.

  • The dairy industry in California emits large amounts of methane (CH4) that contributes significantly to the state’s overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) budget. Reducing CH4emissions has become a key priority for dairy farms in support of California’s GHG reduction goals.
  • Anaerobic digesters designed to capture CH4from animal manure present a practical option for reducing CH4 emissions, but a comprehensive evaluation of the local air quality impacts of this technology has not been previously undertaken. The simplest digester configurations decrease local emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but increase emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), potentially changing local air quality.
  • Here, researchers evaluate the air quality implications of widespread digester adoption in the year 2050 across the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California, which is home to the highest concentration of dairy farms in the state.
  • Changes to concentrations of air pollutants including ozone (O3), airborne particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM5), and various PM2.5chemical components are predicted using the UCD/CIT chemical transport model at 4km resolution. Dairy digester adoption is evaluated within two regional energy scenarios, including a business as usual (BAU) scenario and an 80% greenhouse gas reduction (GHGAi) scenario, to consider potential changes to the chemical regime that governs formation of secondary air pollution.
  • Concentrations were evaluated across 32 randomly selected weeks over a 10-year period from the year 2046 to 2055 to establish a long-term average impact in the presence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. Regional weather patterns were downscaled from Global Climate Model simulations under the RCP8.5 global scenario.
  • The results indicate that baseline dairy emissions make minor contributions to air pollutant concentrations in 2050. Under a worst-case scenario for digester adoption, PM5 concentrations would increase by 0.06 μg m-3(current standard = 9 μg m-3), and maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O3 would change by -1.0 ppb to +0.2 ppb depending on the surrounding regional energy scenario (current standard = 70 ppb).
  • A health impact analysis shows that the widespread use of dairy digesters would result in fewer than 0.1 additional deaths per 100,000 people due to changing air pollution. For comparison, this level of mortality change is more than 100 times smaller than the risk posed by seasonal flu.
  • Further, Environmental Justice analysis indicates that the implementation of digesters will not influence the exposure disparities among different racial groups in either the SJV or the surrounding San Francisco Bay & Sacramento area. These findings suggest that dairy digesters can be widely adopted in central California to reduce GHG emissions with minimal effect on regional air quality and public health.

Micro-positive pressure significantly decreases greenhouse gas emissions by regulating archaeal community during industrial-scale dairy manure composting. Fang C, Qu H, Yang S, He G, Su Y, He X, Huang G. J Environ Manage. 2024 May 14;360:121163.

  • Membrane-covered composting technology with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) as the core is widely used in composting of various organic wastes because of its excellent performance in decreasing GHG emissions. The selective permeability of e-PTFE (average pore diameter <0.2 μm) can block the discharge of water vapor, dust, and aerosols, and reduce the gas emissions rate. Meanwhile, the micro-positive pressure formed by the covering membrane can promote the diffusion of oxygen within the compost pile.
  • In this study, the effects of micro-positive pressure formed by covering with a semipermeable membrane in the heating phase of dairy manure composting on greenhouse gas emissions and the mechanism of reducing methane emissions by the archaeal community were investigated.
  • A large-scale experiment was conducted with semipermeable membrane-covered composting, forced aeration composting, and traditional static composting groups.
  • The results showed that the oxygen concentration and methanogen abundance were key factors in regulating methane emissions. In the heating phase of semipermeable membrane-covered composting, the micro-positive pressure could enhance the O2utilization rate and heating rate, resulting in Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacterium greatly decreasing, and the abundance of mcrA decreased by 90.03%, while that of pmoA did not increase.
  • Compared with forced aeration composting and traditional static composting, the cumulative methane emissions in semipermeable membrane-covered composting decreased by 51.75% and 96.04%, respectively.
  • Therefore, the micro-positive pressure could effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions by inhibiting the growth of methanogens. Inactivation of methanogens was the key to decreased CH4 emissions.

The dynamics of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from various types of dairy manure at smallholder dairy farms as affected by storage periods. Al Zahra W, Ikhsan Shiddieqy M, Anisa R, Yani A, Priyo Purwanto B. Waste Manag. 2024 May 4;183:10-20.

  • Storing manure emits greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). However, the emissions from types of manure stored at smallholder dairy farms remain unknown.
  • Hence, the study aims to analyze the dynamics of N2O and CH4from different types of dairy manure as affected by storage periods.
  • Researchers collected samples from fresh manure (FM-DF1), manure from communal ponds in an urban dairy farm (IP-DF1, FP-DF1, MS-DF1), fresh manure from an urban dairy farm (FM-DF2), and fresh (FM-DF3), separated (FS-DF3), and fermented manure (FR-DF3) from a peri-urban dairy farm, and stored them for eight weeks and analyze them using the closed chamber method.
  • The changes of manure composition including total solids (TS), nitrogen (N), ammonia-nitrogen (N-NH3), and carbon (C) were analyzed.
  • Results indicated an increase TS in all treatments except for MS-DF1, while N, N-NH3, and C content decreased in all treatments. The N2O emissions formed at the start, peaked in the middle, and declined towards the end storage period.
  • The CH4emissions peaked at the start and decreased until the end storage period. Treatment FM-DF2 yield highest cumulative of N2O (0.82 g/m2) and CH4 (41.63 g/m2) compared to other fresh manure treatment. A mixed model analysis detected a significant interaction between manure types and storage periods.
  • In conclusion, manure types and storage periods affect the emissions. Changes in manure concentration during storage and animal diets are two important factors influencing emissions. Strategies to reduce emissions include reducing moisture content in manure, shortening storage periods, and improving feed quality.

Technical and financial feasibility of a chemicals recovery and energy and water production from a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Basem A, Jasim DJ, Marefati M, et al. Sci Rep. 2024 May 15;14(1):11143.

  • Due to the high volume of wastewater produced from dairy factories, it is necessary to integrate a water recovery process with the treatment plant. Today, bipolar membrane electrodialysis units (BMEUs) are increasingly developed for wastewater treatment and reutilizing.
  • This article aims to develop and evaluate (technical and cost analyses) a combined BMEU/batch reverse osmosis unit (BROU) process for the recovery of chemicals and water from the dairy wastewater plant.
  • The combined BROU/BMEU process is able to simultaneously produce water and strong base-acid and reduce power consumption due to the injection of concentrated feed flow into the BMEU. A comprehensive comparative analysis on the performances of two combined and stand-alone BMEU configurations was developed.
  • The proposed combined technology for dairy factory wastewater treatment is designed on a new structure and configuration that can address superior cost analysis compared to similar technologies. Further, the optimal values of permeate flux and current density as two vital and influencing parameters on the performance of the studied dairy wastewater treatment process were calculated and discussed.
  • From the outcomes, the total cost of production in the combined configuration has been reduced by approximately 26% compared to the stand-alone configuration. Increasing the feed concentration rate using the batch reverse osmosis process for the dairy wastewater treatment process can be an ideal solution from an economic point of view.
  • Moreover, point (current density, feed concentration rate, total unit cost) can be considered as an optimal point for the economic performance of the studied wastewater treatment process.

Modelling the impact of wastewater flows and management practices on antimicrobial resistance in dairy farms. Todman H, Helliwell R, Stekel DJ, et al. NPJ Antimicrob Resist. 2024;2(1):13.

  • Dairy slurry is a major source of environmental contamination with antimicrobial resistant genes and bacteria.
  • Therefore, researchers developed mathematical models and conducted on-farm research to explore the impact of wastewater flows and management practices on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in slurry.
  • Temporal fluctuations in cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coliwere observed and attributed to farm activities, specifically the disposal of spent copper and zinc footbath into the slurry system.
  • The model revealed that resistance should be more frequently observed with relevant determinants encoded chromosomally rather than on plasmids, which was supported by reanalysis of sequenced genomes from the farm.
  • Additionally, lower resistance levels were predicted in conditions with lower growth and higher death rates. The use of muck heap effluent for washing dirty channels did not explain the fluctuations in cephalosporin resistance.
  • These results highlight farm-specific opportunities to reduce AMR pollution, beyond antibiotic use reduction, including careful disposal or recycling of waste antimicrobial metals.

Biological Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure-Based Compost Using Competitive Exclusion Microorganisms. Jiang X, Wang J.Pathogens. 2024 Apr 27;13(5):361.

  • Animal manure-based compost is a valuable organic fertilizer and biological soil amendment.
  • To ensure the microbiological safety of compost products, the effectiveness of competitive exclusion microorganisms (CE) in reducing Escherichia coliO157:H7 in dairy manure-based compost was evaluated.
  • A cocktail of  coliO157:H7 strains were inoculated into dairy compost along with CE strains isolated from compost, and the reduction in E. coli O157:H7 by CE was determined in compost with 20%, 30%, and 40% moisture levels at 22 °C and 30 °C under laboratory conditions, as well as in fall, winter, and summer seasons under greenhouse settings.
  • Under lab conditions, CE addition resulted in 1.1-3.36 log reductions in  coliO157:H7 in compost, with enhanced pathogen reduction by higher moisture and lower temperature.
  • In the greenhouse, >99% of the  coliO157:H7 population in compost with ≥30% moisture due to cross-contamination can be effectively inactivated by CE within 2 days during colder seasons. However, it took ≥8 days to achieve the same level of reduction for heat-adapted E. coli O157:H7 cells.
  • These results demonstrated that the competitive exclusion of microorganisms can be an effective tool for controlling foodborne pathogens in compost and reducing the potential for soil and crop contamination.

Influence of Compost Amendments on Soil and Human Gastrointestinal Bacterial Communities during a Single Gardening Season. Bu S, Beavers AW, Sugino KY, Keller SF, Alaimo K, Comstock SS. Microorganisms. 2024 May 1;12(5):928.

  • To measure associations between gardening with different compost amendments and the human gut microbiota composition, gardeners (n = 25) were provided with one of three types of compost: chicken manure (CM), dairy manure and plant material (DMP), or plant-based (P).
  • Stool samples were collected before gardening (T1), after compost amendment (T2), and at peak garden harvest (T3). Compost and soil samples were collected. DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA libraries were established, and libraries were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq.
  • At T2/T3, the gut microbiotas of P participants had the lowest Shannon alpha diversity, which was also the trend at T1. In stool from T2, Ruminococcus 1were less abundant in the microbiotas of those using P compost as compared to those using CM or DMP. At T2, Prevotella 9 had the highest abundance in the microbiotas of those using CM compost.
  • In participants who used CM compost to amend their gardening plots, a larger proportion of the human stool bacteria were sourced from CM compared to soil. Soil exposure through gardening was associated with a small but detectable change in the gardeners’ gut microbiota composition.
  • These results suggest that human interactions with soil through gardening could potentially impact health through alterations to the gut microbiota.

Animal Health and Food Safety

Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in U.S. Dairy Cattle and Detection of Two Human Cases – United States, 2024.  Garg S, Reed C, Dugan V, e al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2024 May 30;73(21):501-505.

  • On April 1, 2024, the Texas Department of State Health Services reported that a dairy farm worker had tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus after exposure to presumably infected dairy cattle; CDC confirmed these laboratory findings. A(H5N1) viruses were found in high concentrations in unpasteurized (raw) milk from infected cows.
  • CDC is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, the Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and state and local public health and animal health officials using a coordinated One Health approach to identify and prepare for developments that could increase the risk to human health. Activities include monitoring of exposed persons, conducting syndromic and laboratory surveillance, planning epidemiologic investigations, and evaluating medical countermeasures.
  • As of May 22, 2024, approximately 350 farm workers with exposure to dairy cattle or infected raw cow’s milk had been monitored. These monitoring efforts identified a second human A(H5) case with conjunctivitis in Michigan, which was reported on May 22, 2024.
  • CDC considers the current risk to the U.S. public from A(H5N1) viruses to be low; however, persons with exposure to infected animals or contaminated materials, including raw cow’s milk, are at higher risk for A(H5N1) virus infection and should take recommended precautions, including using recommended personal protective equipment, self-monitoring for illness symptoms, and, if they are symptomatic, seeking prompt medical evaluation for influenza testing and antiviral treatment if indicated.
  • Pasteurization inactivates A(H5N1) viruses, and the commercial milk supply is safe for consumption; however, all persons should avoid consuming raw milk or products produced from raw milk.
  • Importantly, the risk to the public might change based on whether A(H5N1) viruses acquire genetic changes that increase their transmissibility to and among humans, which could increase the risk of an influenza pandemic.

National dairy research programs: what is their role in animal health and sustainability research? Briggs KR, Ackermann M. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2024 May 10:1-5.

  • The US dairy industry has made great strides in improving animal health over many decades, which has driven substantial improvements in economic, social, and environmental sustainability. As consumer and corporate focus on climate continues to grow, the continued need to research and improve animal health and understand its connection with the environment is integral to the success of the dairy industry.
  • Research to address these areas can be supported by national research programs and collaboration between them. The USDA and Dairy Management Inc established a collaborative research agreement in 2007; to date, this collaboration has not explicitly focused on animal health or its intersection with the environment.
  • It is integral to the success of animal agriculture in an ever-changing sustainability landscape that animal health is addressed as a key piece of socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. An academic-industry stakeholder committee reached a consensus that supported this idea and identified that it is equally important to communicate these research findings with consumers in a way that resonates.
  • The purpose of this Viewpoint article is to highlight that national research programs at the USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Animal Disease Center and Dairy Management Inc can and should play an important role in supporting and facilitating research at the intersection of animal health and sustainability broadly.

Dry matter intake in US Holstein cows: exploring the genomic and phenotypic impact of milk components and body weight composite. Toghiani S, VanRaden PM, Tempelman RJ, et al. J Dairy Sci. 2024 May 14:S0022-0302(24)00781-1.

  • As feed represents the largest operating cost in dairy production, feed efficiency has gained increased attention for genetic selection. Improved feed efficiency contributes to farm profitability by reducing input costs and to environmental sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and land needed for feed production.
  • Large data sets allow estimating feed required for individual milk components or body maintenance. Phenotypic regressions are useful for nutrition management, but genetic regressions are more useful in breeding programs.
  • Dry matter intake (DMI) records from 8,513 lactations of 6,621 Holstein cows were predicted from phenotypes or genomic evaluations for milk components and body size traits. The mixed models also included days in milk, age-parity subclass, trial date, management group, and body weight change during 28- and 42-day feeding trials in mid-lactation.
  • Phenotypic regressions of DMI on milk, fat, and protein were much less than corresponding genomic regressions or sire genomic regressions multiplied by 2. Thus, marginal feed costs as fractions of marginal milk revenue were higher from genetic than phenotypic regressions.
  • According to the energy-corrected milk formula, fat production requires 69% more DMI than protein production. In the phenotypic regression, it was estimated that protein production requires 56% more DMI than fat. However, the genomic regression for the animal showed a difference of only 21% more DMI for protein compared with fat, while the sire genomic regressions indicated approximately 35% more DMI for fat than protein.
  • Estimates of annual maintenance in kg DMI / kg body weight/lactation were similar from phenotypic regression, genomic regression, and sire genomic regression multiplied by 2 and are larger than those estimated by NASEM (2021) based on NEL equations. Multiple regressions on genomic evaluations for the 5 type traits in body weight composite (BWC) showed that strength was the type trait most associated with body weight and DMI, agreeing with the current BWC formula, whereas other traits were less useful predictors, especially for DMI.
  • The Net Merit formula used to weight different genetic traits to achieve an economically optimal overall selection response was revised in 2021 to better account for these estimated regressions. To improve profitability, breeding programs should select smaller cows with negative residual feed intake that produce more milk, fat, and protein.

Tree contributions to climate change adaptation through reduced cattle heat stress and benefits to milk and beef production. Richards D, Dewhurst Z, Giltrap D, Lavorel S.Glob Chang Biol. 2024 May;30(5):e17306.

  • Cattle heat stress causes billions of dollars’ worth of losses to meat and milk production globally, and is projected to become more severe in the future due to climate change. Tree establishment in pastoral livestock systems holds potential to reduce cattle heat stress and thus provide nature-based adaptation.
  • Researchers developed a general model for the impact of trees on cattle heat stress, which can project milk and meat production under future climate scenarios at varying spatial scales.
  • The model incorporates the key microclimate mechanisms influenced by trees, including shade, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The researchers conducted sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the relative influence of different mechanisms through which trees can impact cattle heat stress, and how tree impacts are influenced by climatic context globally.
  • Trees hold the greatest potential to reduce cattle heat stress in higher latitudes and altitudes, with minor benefits in the lowland tropics. The researchers projected the future contributions of current trees in mitigating climate change impacts on the dairy and beef herds of Aotearoa-New Zealand (A-NZ) in 2070-2080.
  • Trees were simulated to contribute to A-NZ milk yields by over 491 million liters (lower CI = 112 million liters, upper CI = 850 million liters), and meat yields by over 8316 tonnes (lower CI = 2431 tonnes, upper CI = 13,668 tonnes) annually.
  • The total economic contribution of existing trees in mitigating future cattle heat stress was valued at $US 244 million (lower CI = $US 58 million, upper CI = $US 419 million). These findings demonstrate the importance of existing trees in pastoral landscapes and suggest that strategic tree establishment can be a valuable adaptation option for reducing cattle heat stress under climate change. Tree establishment in the next few years is critical to provide adaptation capacity and economic benefit in future decades.

Comparison of behavioral and physiological changes in postpartum healthy and inflammatory diseased cows. Huang CY, Kojima T, Yayou KI. Anim Sci J. 2024 Jan-Dec;95(1):e13960.

  • During parturition, cows often experience intense pain and stress, which increases the risk of inflammatory diseases.
  • This study aimed to compare the postpartum health status between healthy cows and those diagnoses with inflammatory diseases by examining behavioral and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) changes, to provide information before the onset of disease.
  • Eight Holstein cows were used in this study. HR, parameters of HRV (low-frequency power: LF; high-frequency power: HF; LF/HF ratio, and total power) and time budget of individual maintenance behaviors (standing, recumbency, feeding, rumination while standing and lying, and sleep) were continuously recorded from 0 to 168 h postpartum.
  • Milk and blood samples were collected daily. Cows were categorized as diseases based on the positive result of California mastitis test and/or serum haptoglobin concentration that exceeded 50 μg/ml after all blood samples have been collected.
  • Compared to healthy individuals (n = 3), diseased cows (n = 5) exhibited higher HR, LF/HF, and lower total power, suggesting the dominance of the sympathetic nervous system in cows with inflammatory diseases.
  • Additionally, diseased cows showed an increased standing time budget and reduced recumbency, which may be a behavioral strategy in response to discomfort from inflammation.

Post-milking application of a Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain impacts bovine teat microbiota while preserving the mammary gland physiology and immunity. Goetz C, Rault L, Cuffel J, Poton P, Finot L, Boullet G, Boutinaud M, Even S. Benef Microbes. 2024 May 14:1-17.

  • Bovine mastitis (BM) is a major disease in dairy industry. The current approaches – mainly antibiotic treatments – are not entirely effective and may contribute to antimicrobial resistance dissemination, rising the need for alternative treatment.
  • The present study aims to evaluate the impact of post-milking application of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei CIRM BIA 1542 (Lp1542) on the teat skin (TS) of 20 Holstein cows in mid lactation, in order to reinforce the barrier effect of the microbiota naturally present on the teat.
  • Treatment (Lp1542, iodine or no treatment) was applied post-milking twice a day on the 4 teats of healthy animals for 15 days. Blood and milk samples, and TS swabs were collected at day (D)1, D8, D15 and D26 before morning milking and at D15 before evening milking (D15E) to evaluate Lp1542 impact at the microbial, immune and physiological levels.
  • Lp1542 treatment resulted in a higher lactic acid bacteria and total microbial populations on TS and in foremilk (FM) at D15(E) compared with iodine treatment. Metabarcoding analysis revealed changes in the composition of TS and FM microbiota, beyond a higher Lacticaseibacillus abundance. This included a higher abundance of Actinobacteriota, including Bifidobacterium, and a lower abundance of Pseudomonadota on TS of Lp1542 compared with iodine-treated quarters.
  • In addition, Lp1542 treatment did not trigger any major inflammatory response in the mammary gland, except interleukin 8 production and expression which tended to be slightly higher in Lp1542-treated cows compared with the others. Finally, Lp1542 treatment had no impact on the mammary epithelium functionality (milk yield and composition) and integrity (epithelial cell exfoliation into milk and milk Na+/K+ ratio).
  • Altogether, these results indicate that a topical treatment with Lp1542 is safe with regard to mammary gland physiology and immune system, while impacting its microbiota, inviting us to further explore its effectiveness for mastitis prevention.

Natural Antimicrobials in Dairy Products: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Trends. Soutelino MEM, Silva ACO, Rocha RDS. Antibiotics (Basel). 2024 May 1;13(5):415.

  • This review delves into using natural antimicrobials in the dairy industry and examines various sources of these compounds, including microbial, plant, and animal sources. It discusses the mechanisms by which they inhibit microbial growth, for example, by binding to the cell wall’s precursor molecule of the target microorganism, consequently inhibiting its biosynthesis, and interfering in the molecule transport mechanism, leading to cell death.
  • In general, they prove to be effective against the main pathogens and spoilage found in food, such as Escherichia coliStaphylococcus aureusBacillusSalmonellaspp., mold, and yeast.
  • Moreover, this review explores encapsulation technology as a promising approach for increasing the viability of natural antimicrobials against unfavorable conditions such as pH, temperature, and oxygen exposure.
  • Finally, this review examines the benefits and challenges of using natural antimicrobials in dairy products. While natural antimicrobials offer several advantages, including improved safety, quality, and sensory properties of dairy products, it is crucial to be aware of the challenges associated with their use, such as potential allergenicity, regulatory requirements, and consumer perception.
  • This review concludes by emphasizing the need for further research to identify and develop effective and safe natural antimicrobials for the dairy industry to ensure the quality and safety of dairy products for consumers.

Natural approach of using nisin and its nanoform as food bio-preservatives against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli O157:H7 in yoghurt. Elsherif WM, Hassanien AA, Zayed GM, Kamal SM. BMC Vet Res. 2024 May 11;20(1):192.

  • Natural antimicrobial agents such as nisin have been used to control the growth of foodborne pathogens in dairy products.
  • The current study aimed to examine the inhibitory effect of pure nisin and nisin nanoparticles (nisin NPs) against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and E.coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and storage of yoghurt. Nisin NPs were prepared using new, natural, and safe nano-precipitation method by acetic acid.
  • Fresh milk was inoculated with MRSA or E.coli O157:H7 (1 × 106 CFU/ml) with the addition of either nisin or nisin NPs, and then the inoculated milk was used for yoghurt making. The organoleptic properties, pH and bacterial load of the obtained yoghurt were evaluated during storage in comparison to control group.
  • The obtained results showed a strong antibacterial activity of nisin NPs (0.125 mg/mL) against MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 in comparison with control and pure nisin groups. Notably, complete eradication of MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 was observed in yoghurt formulated with nisin NPs after 24 h and 5th day of storage, respectively.
  • The shelf life of yoghurt inoculated with nisin nanoparticles was extended than those manufactured without addition of such nanoparticles.
  • Overall, the present study indicated that the addition of nisin NPs during processing of yoghurt could be a useful tool for food preservation against MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 in dairy industry.

Human Health and Nutrition

Substitution of Dairy Products and Risk of Death and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Kiesswetter E, Neuenschwander M, Schwingshackl L, et al. Curr Dev Nutr. 2024 Apr 23;8(5):102159.

  • Substitution models in epidemiologic studies specifying both substitute and substituted food in relation to disease risk may be useful to inform dietary guidelines.
  • A systematic review of prospective observational studies was performed to quantify the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated with the substitution of dairy products with other foods and between different dairy products.
  • Researchers systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science until 28th June, 2023 and calculated summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in random-effects meta-analyses.
  • Fifteen studies (with 34 publications) were included. There was moderate certainty of evidence that the substitution of low-fat dairy with red meat was associated with a higher risk of mortality, coronary artery disease, and T2D (SRR 1.11, 1.13, and 1.20, respectively).
  • A higher risk of mortality and T2D was also observed when substituting low-fat dairy with processed meat (SRR 1.19 and 1.41, respectively).
  • A lower mortality risk was associated with the substitution of dairy and yogurt with whole grains (SRR 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and butter with olive oil (SRR 0.94).
  • Mainly no associations were observed when substituting dairy products against each other on disease and mortality risk.
  • These findings indicate associations between substituting dairy with red or processed meat and higher disease risk, whereas its substitution with whole grains was associated with a lower risk. However, there is little robust evidence that substituting whole-fat with low-fat dairy is associated with disease risk.

Impact of increased protein intake in older adults: a 12-week double-blind randomised controlled trial. Wirth J, Segat A, Horner K, Crognale D, Smith T, O’Sullivan M, Brennan L. Age Ageing. 2024 May 11;53(Supplement_2):ii13-ii19.

  • Emerging evidence suggests health-promoting properties of increased protein intake. There is increased interest in plant protein but a dearth of information in relation to its impact on muscle function.
  • The objective of the present work was to examine the impact of intake of different types of proteins on muscle functional parameters including handgrip strength, biomarkers of metabolic health, sleep quality and quality of life in a group of older adults.
  • Healthy men and women aged 50 years and older entered a double-blinded, randomized, controlled nutritional intervention study with three parallel arms: high plant protein, high dairy protein and low protein. Participants consumed once daily a ready-to-mix shake (containing 20 g of protein in high protein groups) for 12 weeks.
  • Changes in handgrip and leg strength, body composition, metabolic health, quality of life and sleep quality were analyzed by linear mixed models in an intention-to-treat approach.
  • Eligible participants (n = 171) were randomly assigned to the groups (plant: n = 60, dairy: n = 56, low protein: n = 55) and 141 completed the study.
  • Handgrip strength increased after the intervention, with no significant difference between the groups. There was no significant difference between groups for any other health outcomes.
  • In a population of older adults, increasing protein intake by 20 g daily for 12 weeks (whether plant-based or dairy-based) did not result in significant differences in muscle function, body composition, metabolic health, sleep quality or quality of life, compared with the low protein group.

Dairy consumption, bone turnover biomarkers, and osteo sono assessment index in Japanese adults: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Iwaki Health Promotion Project. Nakano A, Ueno HM, Kawata D, Tatara Y, Tamada Y, Mikami T, Murashita K, Nakaji S, Itoh K. Bone Rep. 2024 Apr 29;21:101770.

  • Dairy foods are nutritional sources of calcium, phosphorus, protein, and other nutrients that improve bone health. However, the effects of dairy consumption on bone biomarkers in the Japanese population remain unclear.
  • This study explored the association between dairy consumption and bone biomarkers in Japanese adults.
  • This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project in Aomori, Japan. In total, 1063 adults were included in the analysis. Bone turnover marker levels were measured in local citizens during their annual medical checkups. The calcaneus osteo sono assessment index (OSI) was calculated using a quantitative ultrasound technique.
  • In multivariate models, the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and parathyroid hormone concentrations were inversely associated with dietary dairy consumption after adjusting for age and sex.
  • The undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a procollagen type I N-terminal peptide to bone alkaline phosphatase ratio, and OSI were the directly associated with dairy consumption in multivariate models with adjustment.
  • In conclusion,dairy consumption is partially associated with bone turnover biomarkers and OSI in adult Japanese participants. Habitual consumption of dairy foods may contribute to the nutritional supplementation for maintaining bone health, including turnover and structure.

The relationship between fermented and nonfermented dairy products consumption and hypertension among premature coronary artery disease patients: Iran premature coronary artery disease study. Ansari S, Mohammadifard N, Sarrafzadegan N. Food Sci Nutr. 2024 Feb 8;12(5):3322-3335.

  • Dairy products may affect hypertension (HTN) risk.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the association between fermented and nonfermented dairy foods and HTN in a sample of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD) subjects.
  • This cross-sectional study was performed on 1854 PCAD patients. A 110-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. HTN was considered if systolic blood pressure was 140 mmHg and higher and/or diastolic blood pressure was 90 mmHg and higher.
  • The mean (SD) of dairy products consumption was 339.8 (223.5) g/day, of which 285.4 g/day was fermented dairy products. In the crude model, participants in the fourth quartile of fermented dairy products had lesser risk of HTN compared to the bottom quartile (OR = 0.70). However, after considering the possible confounders, the significance disappeared.
  • Subjects in the top quartile of high-fat fermented dairy products had 34% lower risk for HTN compared to the bottom quartile. Adjustment for potential risk factors weakened the association but remained significant (OR = 0.73).
  • Overall, moderate consumption of high-fat fermented dairy products, in a population with low consumption of dairy foods, might relate to reduced likelihood of HTN.

Associations between low- and high-fat dairy intake and recurrence risk in people with stage I-III colorectal cancer differ by sex and primary tumour location. van Lanen AS, Kok DE, van Duijnhoven FJB, et al; COLON and PLCRC studies. Int J Cancer. 2024 May 3.

  • There is strong evidence that dairy intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, its relation to the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence remains unclear. Researchers previously demonstrated that intake of low-fat dairy, but not high-fat dairy, was associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence risk. These risks, however, may differ by sex, primary tumour location, and disease stage.
  • Combining data from two similar prospective cohort studies of people with stage I-III CRC enabled these subgroup analyses.
  • Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis (n = 2283). Researchers examined associations between low- and high-fat dairy intake and recurrence risk using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by sex, and primary tumour location (colon and rectum), and disease stage (I/II and III). Upper quartiles were compared to lower quartiles of intake, and recurrence was defined as a locoregional recurrence and/or metastasis.
  • During a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 331 recurrences were detected. A higher intake of low-fat dairy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.60), which seemed more pronounced in men (HR: 0.51) than in women (HR: 0.84).
  • A higher intake of high-fat dairy was associated with an increased risk of recurrence in participants with colon cancer (HR: 1.60), but not rectal cancer (HR: 0.88). No differences in associations were observed between strata of disease stage.
  • In conclusion, these findings imply that dietary advice regarding low-fat dairy intake may be especially important for men with CRC, and that dietary advice regarding high-fat dairy intake may be specifically important in people with colon cancer.

Prebiotic Strategies to Manage Lactose Intolerance Symptoms. Angima G, Qu Y, Park SH, Dallas DC. Nutrients. 2024. 16(7):1002.

  • Lactose intolerance, which affects about 65-75% of the world’s population, is caused by a genetic post-weaning deficiency of lactase, the enzyme required to digest the milk sugar lactose, called lactase non-persistence.
  • Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. Genetic variations, namely lactase persistence, allow some individuals to metabolize lactose effectively post-weaning, a trait thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to dairy consumption.
  • Although lactase non-persistence cannot be altered by diet, prebiotic strategies, including the consumption of galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) and possibly low levels of lactose itself, may shift the microbiome and mitigate symptoms of lactose consumption.
  • This review discusses the etiology of lactose intolerance and the efficacy of prebiotic approaches like GOSs and low-dose lactose in symptom management.

Skimmed, Lactose-Free Milk Ingestion Postexercise: Rehydration Effectiveness and Gastrointestinal Disturbances Versus Water and a Sports Drink in Physically Active People. Aragón-Vargas LF, Garzón-Mosquera JC, Montoya-Arroyo JA. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2024 May 24:1-9.

  • Postexercise hydration is fundamental to replace fluid loss from sweat.
  • This study evaluated rehydration and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for each of three beverages: water (W), sports drink (SD), and skimmed, lactose-free milk (SLM) after moderate-intensity cycling in the heat.
  • Sixteen college students completed three exercise sessions each to lose ≈2% of their body mass. They drank 150% of body mass loss of the drink assigned in randomized order; net fluid balance, diuresis, and GI symptoms were measured and followed up for 3 hr after completion of fluid intake.
  • SLM showed higher fluid retention (∼69%) versus W (∼40%;); SD (∼56%) was not different from SLM or W. Net fluid balance was higher for SLM (-0.26 kg) and SD (-0.42 kg) than W (-0.67 kg) after 3 hours, resulting from a significantly lower diuresis with SLM.
  • Reported GI disturbances were mild and showed no difference among drinks despite ingestion of W (1,992 ± 425 ml), SD (1,999 ± 429 ml), and SLM (1,993 ± 426 ml) in 90 min.
  • In conclusion, SLM was more effective than W for postexercise rehydration, showing greater fluid retention for the 3-hour follow-up and presenting with low-intensity GI symptoms similar to those with W and SD. These results confirm that SLM is an effective option for hydration after exercise in the heat.

Innovation, Economics, and Dairy Alternatives

Revolutionizing cattle breeding: Gene editing advancements for enhancing economic traits. Liu Y, Liu S, Sheng H, Feng X, Wang S, Hu Y, Zhang L, Cai B, Ma Y. Gene. 2024 May 23:148595.

  • Beef and dairy products are rich in protein and amino acids, making them highly nutritious for human consumption. The increasing use of gene editing technology in agriculture has paved the way for genetic improvement in cattle breeding via the development of the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) system.
  • Gene sequences are artificially altered and employed in the pursuit of improving bovine breeding research through targeted knockout, knock-in, substitution, and mutation methods.
  • This review offers a comprehensive analysis of the advancements in gene editing technology and its diverse applications in enhancing both quantitative and qualitative traits across livestock. These applications encompass areas such as meat quality, milk quality, fertility, disease resistance, environmental adaptability, sex control, horn development, and coat colour.
  • Furthermore, the review considers prospective ideas and insights that may be employed to refine breeding traits, enhance editing efficiency, and navigate the ethical considerations associated with these advancements. The review’s focus on improving the quality of beef and milk is intended to enhance the economic viability of these products.

Personalized nutrition with 3D-printed foods: A systematic review on the impact of different additives. Abedini A, Sohrabvandi S, Jafari SM, et al. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2024 Jun;328:103181.

  • Three-dimensional (3D) printing is one of the world’s top novel technologies in the food industry due to the production of food in different conditions and places (restaurants, homes, catering, schools, for dysphagia patients, and astronauts’ food) and the production of personalized food.
  • Nowadays, 3D printers are used in the main food industries, including meat, dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, and have been able to produce successfully on a small scale. However, due to the expansion of this technology, it has challenges such as high-scale production, selection of printable food, formulation optimization, and food production according to the consumer’s opinion.
  • Food additives (gums, enzymes, proteins, starches, polyphenols, spices, probiotics, algae, edible insects, oils, salts, vitamins, flavors, and by-products) are one of the main components of the formulation that can be effective in food production according to the consumer’s attitude. Food additives can have the highest impact on textural and sensory characteristics, which can be effective in improving consumer attitudes and reducing food neophobia.
  • Most of the 3D-printed food cannot be printed without the presence of hydrocolloids, because the proper flow of the selected formulation is one of the key factors in improving the quality of the printed product.
  • Functional additives such as probiotics can be useful for specific purposes and functional food production.
  • Food personalization for specific diseases with 3D printing technology requires a change in the formulation, which is closely related to the selection of correct food additives. For example, the production of 3D-printed plant-based steaks is not possible without the presence of additives, or the production of food for dysphagia patients is possible in many cases by adding hydrocolloids.
  • In general, additives can improve the textural, rheological, nutritional, and sensory characteristics of 3D printed foods; so, investigating the mechanism of the additives on all the characteristics of the printed product can provide a wide perspective for industrial production and future studies.

Biofortification of Plant- and Animal-Based Foods in Limiting the Problem of Microelement Deficiencies-A Narrative Review. Białowąs W, Blicharska E, Drabik K. Nutrients. 2024 May 14;16(10):1481.

  • With a burgeoning global population, meeting the demand for increased food production presents challenges, particularly concerning mineral deficiencies in diets. Micronutrient shortages like iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, and magnesium carry severe health implications, especially in developing nations.
  • Biofortification of plants and plant products emerges as a promising remedy to enhance micronutrient levels in food. Utilizing agronomic biofortification, conventional plant breeding, and genetic engineering yields raw materials with heightened micronutrient contents and improved bioavailability. A similar strategy extends to animal-derived foods by fortifying eggs, meat, and dairy products with micronutrients.
  • Employing “dual” biofortification, utilizing previously enriched plant materials as a micronutrient source for livestock, proves an innovative solution. Amid biofortification research, conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments is essential to assess the bioactivity of micronutrients from enriched materials, emphasizing digestibility, bioavailability, and safety. Mineral deficiencies in human diets present a significant health challenge.
  • Biofortification of plants and animal products emerges as a promising approach to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies, necessitating further research into the utilization of biofortified raw materials in the human diet, with a focus on bioavailability, digestibility, and safety.

Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Intentions to Consume Cultured Meat, Fish and Dairy. Engel L, Vilhelmsen K, Richter I, Moritz J, Ryynänen T, Young JF, Burton RJF, Kidmose U, Klöckner CA. Appetite. 2024 May 17:107501.

  • Livestock agriculture is facing a variety of issues including meeting the needs of a growing global population, biodiversity loss, the effect of climate change on production levels, legislative requirements to reduce GHG emissions, declining aquifers, and soil degradation to name a few.
  • In addition, concern is emerging for the animal welfare implications of industrial livestock production and the human health implications of the overuse of antibiotics and the potential emergence of drug-resistant microbes.
  • With a lack of viable alternatives, the solution to these issues is often the promotion of low-meat (or no-meat) diets. However, despite widespread knowledge of the impact of animal agriculture on the environment, willingness to reduce currently high levels of meat, fish and dairy consumption remains relatively low.
  • Recently, a potential solution has emerged in the form of cultured proteins. Producing cultured proteins for food involves either growing stem or satellite cells of live animals in a bioreactor or genetically engineering micro-organisms to produce animal proteins such as whey, casein or egg white.
  • This study investigates the structure of factors that influence consumer intentions to both try and to consume cultured proteins, and their intentions to substitute vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diets with these alternative protein sources.
  • Comprehensive survey data (N=3,862) was collected from three Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, and Norway) and analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.
  • Results indicate that beliefs about the necessity of an industry producing cultured proteins and impacts of cultured proteins on the global economy are significant predictors of consumer intentions. Moreover, participants who exhibited high levels of general and food innovativeness were more likely to express positive intentions to consume cultured proteins.
  • Social norms influenced consumer intentions: Individuals surrounded by positive attitudes and intentions toward cultured proteins within their social networks were more inclined to want to consume these products. The predictor variables in the final model accounted for between 39% and 66% of the variance in the different cultured proteins related intentions.
  • Understanding consumer intentions better can inform targeted communication strategies aimed at promoting the advantages of cultured proteins and facilitating its adoption.

Overview of Dairy-based Products with Probiotics: Fermented or Non-fermented Milk Drink. Jang HJ, Lee NK, Paik HD. Food Sci Anim Resour. 2024 Mar;44(2):255-268.

  • Probiotic products have long been recognized for their health benefits. Additionally, milk has held a longstanding reputation as a dairy product that offers high-quality proteins and essential micronutrients. As awareness of the impact of food on health grows, interest in functional products such as probiotic dairy products is on the rise.
  • Fermentation, a time-honored technique used to enhance nutritional value and food preservation, has been used for centuries to increase nutritional value and is one of the oldest food processing methods.
  • Historically, fermented dairy products have been used as convenient vehicle for the consumption of probiotics. However, addressing the potential drawbacks of fermentation has recently led to increase in research on probiotic dairy drinks prepared without fermentation.
  • These non-fermented dairy drinks have the advantage of maintaining the original flavors of milk drinks, containing potential health functional probiotics, and being an alternative dairy product that is helpful for probiotics intake.
  • Currently, research on plant-based dairy products is rapidly increasing in the market. These developments might suggest the potential for novel forms of non-fermented dairy beverages with substantial prospects in the food market.
  • This review aims to provide an overview of milk-based dairy beverages, both fermented and non-fermented, and discuss the potential of non-fermented dairy products. This exploration paves the way for innovative approaches to deliver probiotics and nutrition to consumers.